A similar concept although old and I don't quite recommend is the game called Outpost. Where you try to load up a ship with limited supplies and try to survive on an inhospitable planet with these supplies. But it is more like a city builder than anything. Beyond that I cannot think of any type of game like Homeworld in narrative.
Outpost 2 though. That. game. That game. It is dated, now obviously... but the story, which with each mission you unlock a new chapter of. mmm mmm mmm.
I DO recommend that game. Hmm. how do I say this without spoilers... that story still affects my dreams.
And I think it is the story which is what the OP is after, yes?
Try outpost 2. Its free now.
and, back in the day, of course it was the music and video which took all the !!super valuable harddrive space!! Which is a separate download on that website, so dont forget it!